Main Article Content
Worldwide, dairy products industry has went towards yielding high-safety milky products in the food markets. Food safety and milk quality are of great concerning for health and nutrition of consumers and for public health surveillance through prevention of different food-borne infections, poisoning of food and risk of zoonosis. The current study was focused mainly to investigate of milk bacterial contamination and its impacts on milk quantity and quality. This study summarized that there were several sources of contamination, which come throughout internal and external udder such as blood infections and mastitis as well as from the herd hygiene and health status, production environments, milking parlor and conserving practices in farm. Both raw and pasteurized milk as well as different dairy products may act as perfect condition for growing of many organisms that responsible on deterioration and decreasing the shelf life of milk and by-products. These organisms include those that capable for production of heat-resistant enzymes, withstanding heat temperature, and growing at room or refrigeration temperatures. In conclusion, the microbial quality of food is necessary to traceability in dairy product industry, and the food hygiene protocols are fundamental for reduction of bacterial contamination in raw and pasteurized milk regarding the health risk. Also, consumers education programs and practices of good handling of foods could reduce the exposure of milk to food-borne pathogenic agents and consumption of unsafe dairy products.